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名词性从句中的虚拟语气

时间:2017-5-2 13:24:47

虚拟语气表示说话人的愿望、要求、命令、请求等时,常用于名词性从句。
  [宾语从句中的虚拟语气]
  1. wish引导的宾语从句
  表示对现在情况的虚拟:从句谓语动词用过去式(be动词一般用were)。
  表示对过去情况的虚拟:从句谓语动词用“had+过去分词”。
  表示对将来的主观愿望:从句谓语动词形式为“would/could/might+动词原形”。
  如:
  I wish I knew the approach to solving the problem. (可惜不知道)
  I wish I hadn’t informed him of the sad news. (事实上已告诉)
  I wish you would win tomorrow. (对将来的主观愿望)
  例1 (2015·天津卷) I wish I _______ at my sister’s wedding last Tuesday, but I was on a business trip in New York then.
  A. will be B. would be
  C. have been D. had been
  解析 D。考查虚拟语气。上周二我本希望参加我姐姐的婚礼,但那时我在纽约出差。本题考查wish引导的宾语从句,表示与过去事实相反的愿望,从句谓语动词用“had+过去分词”。根据句意可知本题应该选D。
  2. would rather引导的宾语从句
  表示现在或将来的愿望,从句谓语动词用过去式(be动词一般用were)。如:
  I would rather you posted the letter right away. (希望现在寄)
  She would rather that we had the discussion right after the lecture. (希望讲座后讨论)
  例2 (2014·陕西卷) We would rather our daughter _______ at home with us, but it is her choice, and she is not a child any longer.
  A. would stay B. has stayed
  C. stayed D. stay
  解析 C。考查虚拟语气。would rather后跟宾语从句时,从句的谓语动词如果用过去式表示动作发生在现在或将来,用“had+过去分词”则表示动作发生在过去。根据后一句中的is可知这里说的是现在的情况,所以从句的谓语动词用一般过去式。
  表达过去的愿望: 从句谓语动词用“had+過去分词”。如:
  You bought me a blue bicycle, I would rather you had painted it red.
  suggest,demand,order,propose,insist,command,request,desire,advice, require, urge等动词后的宾语从句中,谓语动词用“(should)+动词原形”,表示建议、要求、命令、请求、敦促等。如:
  The guard at the gate insisted that everybody (should) obey the rules.
  He suggested that we (should) have a meeting at once.
  I advice that we (should) think it over before accepting it.
  例3 (2016·全国卷Ⅱ) Some classmates suggest we can go to places of interest nearby.
  解析 去掉can或can→should 。考查虚拟语气。动词suggest作“建议”讲时,后面宾语从句的谓语动词要使用虚拟语气,即“(should)+动词原形”,所以本句可以去掉can或将can改为should。
  例4 (2013·浙江卷) Eye doctors recommend that a child’s first eye exam _______ at the age of six months old.
  A. was B. be
  C. were D. is
  解析 B。考查虚拟语气。眼科医生建议孩子在两个月时就要进行第一次眼科检查。根据句中谓语动词recommend可以判断出后面宾语从句的谓语动词应该用(should) do sth.。
  例5 (2013·陕西卷) My mom suggests that we _______ eat out for a change this weekend.
  A. should B. might
  C. could D. would
  解析 A。本题考查名词性从句中的虚拟语气。妈妈建议我们这个周末出去吃饭换换口味。本句是一个复合句,主句谓语动词suggests,后跟宾语从句,从句谓语动词要用(should) do sth.,故答案是A。
  [主语从句中的虚拟语气]
  基本句型分以下几种:
  It is suggested,ordered,proposed,required,demanded,requested,insisted that+ ... (should) do
  It is important,necessary,natural,desirable,strange,advisable,essential that+ ... (should) do
  It is a pity,a shame,no wonder/one’s desire that+ ... (should) do
  如:
  It is suggested that the meeting (should) be put off till next week.
  It’s necessary that you (should) hand in your homework today.
  It’s everybody’s desire that every effort (should) be made to reduce the pollution in our city.
  [表语从句中的虚拟语气]
  1. as if/though引导的表语从句
  as if/though引导的表语从句中谓语动词变化规则与wish引导的宾语从句变化一致。如:
  He seems as if it were spring now.
  It looks as if he had learned some French.
  2. suggestion,proposal,order,plan,request,advice等名词后的表语从句和同位语从句中,都可以用“(should)+动词原形”表示虚拟。如:
  My suggestion is that a few more people (should) be sent there to help me. (表语从句)
  I made a suggestion that he (should) go there at once. (同位语从句)

作者:不详 来源:网友发布
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