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定语从句的关系词

时间:2017-4-21 17:04:15

关系词是定语从句的核心。同学们往往容易在关系词的选择上出错,针对这种情况,笔者归纳了不同的关系词的区别,帮助同学们克服这一困难。
  [五组易混关系代词用法辨析]
  1. 只用that不用which的情况
  先行词是all,much,little,something,everything,anything,nothing,none等不定代词时。如:I refuse to accept the blame for something that was his fault.
  先行词被the only,any,few,no,very等修饰时。如:Australia is the only country that is also a continent.
  先行词是形容词的最高级或序数词,或被形容词的最高级、序数词修饰时。如:This is the most interesting film that I’ve ever seen.
  先行词人、物并用时。如:Do you know the things and persons that they are talking about?
  主句的主语是疑问词who或which时。如:Which is the bike that you lost?
  先行词在主句中作表语, 而关系代词也在从句中作表语时。如:Shandong is no longer the province that it used to be.
  2. 只用which不用that的情况
  关系代词前有介词时。如:Is this the house in which Shakespeare was born?
  引導非限制性定语从句时。如:As a child, Jack studied in a village school, which is named after his grandfather.
  先行词为that/those时。如:What’s that which was put in the car?
  which用作定语时。如:He may be late, in which case we ought to wait for him.
  3. the same ... as ... 与the same ... that ...
  the same ... as表示相似或同类的东西,the same ... that表示同一人或物。如:
  This is the same book as he lent me last week.
  This is the same book that he lent me last week.
  4. such/so ... as与such/so ... that
  such/so ... as (定语从句)像……那样
  such/so ... that (状语从句)如此……以至于
  This is such an easy question as I can answer.
  This is such an easy question that I can answer it.
  5. as与which
  as引导的非限制性定语从句既可以放在主句前, 也可以放在主句后, 有时还可插入主句中。which引导的非限制性定语从句通常放在主句之后。
  as意为“正如……”,后面的谓语动词多用see,know,expect,say,mention,report等; which意为“这一点”或“这件事”等。
  He is a very successful man, as is known to all.
  The meeting was put off, which astonished us.
  [常考的关系代词who, whom, whose]
  1. 用who和whom的情况
  先行词为one,ones,anyone,those,且指代人时。如:
  The persons I want to talk about with you are Faye Wong and Li Yapeng, the ones who signed a divorce agreement on Friday in Urumqi.
  在there be结构中, 修饰主语的定语从句宜用关系代词who指代人。如:There’s a gentleman who wants to see you.
  一个句子中带有两个修饰人的定语从句, 其中一个定语从句的关系代词是that, 另一个宜用who以避免重复。如:The student that was praised at yesterday’s meeting is the monitor who is very modest and works very hard.
  当关系代词前面有介词,只能用whom。whom在定语从句中作介词的宾语时,介词可放在后面,也可提前以构成“介词+whom(先行词指人)”结构。如:The settlement is home to nearly 1,000 people, many of whom left their village homes for a better life in the city.
  2. whose的用法

关系代词whose一般指人,表示“该人的”,也可指物,表示“该物的”,在以物为先行词时,可用of which代替在从句中作定语。如:The prize will go to the writer whose story/of whom the story shows the most imagination.
  注意:关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,从句谓语动词的人称和数要和先行词保持一致。如:
  Tom is one of the engineers who are sent abroad.
  Tom is the only one of the engineers who has come up with the solution.
  [关系副词when, where, why]
  1. when的用法
  先行词为“时间名词”,可用when引导定语从句,when在定语从句中作状语,也可用“介词+which”结构代替。如:The days are gone when physical strength was all you needed to make a living.
  2. where的用法
  先行词是“地点名词”,定语从句可用where引导,where在从句中作状语,也可用“介词+which”结构代替。如:A bank is the place where(=in which) they lend you an umbrella in fair weather and ask for it back when it begins to rain.
  定語从句如果修饰point,situation,part,condition和case等表示抽象意义的词,常用where引导,意思是“到了某种地步,在某种境况下”。如:You reach a point where medicine can’t help.
  3. why的用法
  先行词是表示原因的名词reason时,可以用why引导定语从句,why在其中作原因状语,可用for which替代。可以把此时的句子牢记为一个固定句型,即The reason why ... is/was that ...,意为“……的原因是……”。如:The reason why/for which he didn’t attend the meeting was that he was ill.
  [选择关系代词/副词的原则]
  在选择关系词时,最重要的是分析定语从句所缺的成分。若从句缺主语、宾语、定语或表语,那么必须用关系代词;若从句不缺主语、宾语、定语或表语,那么必须用关系副词。
  This is the mountain village that/which I visited last year. (关系词在从句中作宾语)
  I will never forget the day when my father returned from America. (关系词在从句中作状语)
  先行词是表示方法、方式的way,后面的定语从句缺方式状语时可以用that或in which引导,也可以省略关系词。如果后面的定语从句中缺少宾语,要用that或which引导,也可以省略关系词。如:
  I don’t like the way that/in which/不填 he speaks to his mother.
  例1 (2015·湖南卷) It is a truly delightful place, ________ looks the same as it must have done 100 years ago with its winding streets and pretty cottages.
  A. as B. where C. that D. which
  解析 D。此句是非限制性定语从句,先行词place在定语从句中作主语,所以要用关系代词引导。as引导非限定性定语从句时要放在句首,故选用which。句意:这真是一个令人愉快的地方,这里蜿蜒的小路和美丽的村舍一定和一百年前看起来一模一样。
  例2 (2015·北京卷) Opposite is St. Paul’s Church, ________ you can hear some lovely music.
  A. which B. that C. when D. where
  解析 D。这是一个定语从句。先行词是St. Paul’s Church,从句主谓宾成分完整,去掉空后依然是完整的句子,可推断出引导词在从句中作地点状语,用where。句意:对面是圣保罗教堂,在教堂里你能听到一些优美的音乐。
  点拨 关系代词that和关系副词why不能引导非限制性定语从句。做题之前先看句中有没有逗号,逗号是非限制性定语从句的标志。然后再看句子中缺不缺成分,在定语从句中从句主语和宾语都不缺少时,应该考虑关系副词。

作者:不详 来源:网友发布
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