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高考英语如何复习副词?

时间:2016-10-1 20:36:56

 副词是高考的一个基本考点。副词是一种用来修饰动词、形容词、副词或者整个句子的词,可说明时间、地点、 程度、频率、方式和关系等内容。如:
  The ice melted instantly. (修饰谓语动词)
  You are absolutely wrong. (修饰形容词)
  Obviously, they have to negotiate with the committee. (修饰全句)
  副词的含义和分类
  时间副词有today, yesterday, before, now, then, shortly, eventually等;
  地点副词有here, there, inside, outside, aboard, abroad, downtown, downstairs, everywhere等;
  方式副词有carefully, slowly, suddenly, cautiously, patiently, illegally等;
  程度副词有much, very, rather, quite, hardly, almost, merely, simply, absolutely, totally, entirely,generally等;
  频率副词有usually, sometimes, never, always, often, frequently等;
  关系副词有thus, so, therefore, however, consequently, additionally, besides等;
  还有一类副词可表示某种语气、情感,一般用来修饰全句,如:importantly, obviously, luckily, fortunately, unfortunately等。
  掌握副词的分类及含义能帮助同学们快速理解语境,并熟练运用副词表达程度、关系及情感态度。
  例1 (2014·全国卷Ⅱ) Everyone on the bus began talking about what the boy had done, and the crowd of strangers 70 (sudden) became friendly to one another.
  解析 suddenly。sudden意为“突然”,修饰的应是谓语became friendly,而非stranger,只有副词才能修饰谓语动词,所以此处应将形容词sudden变为副词suddenly填入。
  例2 (2015·广东卷) 2 (lucky), he also had a cow which produced milk every day.
  解析 Luckily。此句应该表达的是“他还有头每天产奶的牛这事是幸运的”,所以填的词应该修饰全句,要用副词。luckily表达的是一种语气情感。
  副词的位置
  1. 修饰形容词或副词的副词一般放在所修饰的形容词或副词之前。如:
  This kind of material is rather cheap. (rather修饰形容词cheap)
  He got up surprisingly early. (surprisingly修饰副词early)
  2. 副词若修饰谓语动词,分两种情况:
  所修饰的谓语若只有实意动词,则副词一般放在实意动词之后,如listen carefully, think logically, organize well, go abroad, go downstairs等;所修饰的谓语如果既有实意动词又有助动词,则副词往往放在助动词之后、实意动词之前。如:
  The population of Shanghai is rapidly increasing.
  She has already resigned from this position.
  了解副词的位置,能帮助判断题目考查的是不是副词。
  例3 (2016·全国卷Ⅰ) Recent studies (study) show that we are far more productive at work if we take short breaks 67 (regular).
  解析 regularly。第67空同学们通过观察可知形容词位于动词短语take short breaks之后,只能将其变为副词,因为只有副词才能修饰动词,且副词修饰实意动词时一般位于实意动词之后。
  例4 (2016·全国卷Ⅰ) The title will be 63, (official) given to me at a ceremony in London.
  解析 officially。此句的谓语结构为will be given, 分析可知只有副词才能修饰谓语动词,且副词放在助动词之后、实意动词之前,符合表达习惯,所以此空需将official变为officially填入。
  特殊情况
  1. 不是所有的副词都是-ly结尾,带-ly后缀的词不一定是副词,比如likely, lovely, friendly, lively, deadly, weekly, daily就是形容词。
  2. 有类动词像系动词一样可以用主动形式表达被动意义,但是它们不是系动词,因而其后要接副词而不是形容词。如:
  The book sells well. The cloth dries easily.
  3. 有的副词加-ly后缀还是副词,但意思有所改变。如:
  We should study hard.
  He can hardly get in touch with the boss.
  这里hardly为表达否定意义的副词。又如:deep, wide, high, direct等副词变为deeply, widely, narrowly, highly, directly后意义由具体变为抽象。试比较:
  The rescuers are digging deep.
  I’m deeply touched by his words.
  Open your mouth wide.
  English is widely used all over the world.
  The plane can fly high.
  The headmaster thought highly of my sister.
  You can fly to Paris direct.
  Directly after lunch we were packed and ready to go.
  4. 有些副词与现在进行时或过去进行时连用,表达的是喜恶等情感、态度。这些副词有forever, always, often, constantly等。如:
  He is constantly scolding me.
  Mary is always helping others.
  5. 还要注意对副词的比较级或最高级的考查。
  例5 (2014·广东卷) After our plane landed, we went to the hotel. We had made our reservation six months 17 (early), but the man at the front desk said there had been a mistake.
  解析 earlier。此句中表达的是“早在六个月前就订好了宾馆”,所以考查的是early的比较级earlier“更早的时候”。
  6. 还有可能考查特殊句式,如the more ..., the more ...。
  例6 (2014·辽宁卷) The 68 (hard) you try to beat him, the more likely you will get hit.
  解析 harder。此句意为“你打他打得越狠,你自己受到打击的可能性越大”。用的是特殊句式the more ..., the more ...,故应将hard变为harder。
  7. 最后还有一些副词随着时间的推移具有了连词的功能,可以引导状语从句。如:
  The girl burst into tears immediately she saw her mother.
  All the students became silent instantly they caught a glimpse of their headteacher.
  在这里immediately, instantly表示“一……就……”,相当于as soon as/the moment, 起的是连词的作用。
  总之,在我们掌握了副词的含义、用法及相关注意事项的前提下,遇到语法填空题中的形容词,就要判断它修饰的对象:如果修饰谓语动词、形容词、副词或全句,就可直接将它变为副词;如果空中给的是副词,则很可能考查它的比较级、最高级。

作者:不详 来源:网友发布
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