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高考完形填空解题六法

时间:2016-10-1 20:35:34

[依上下,重语境]
  完形填空考查同学们对语境的理解,半数以上的题目都是语篇层次上的语义辨析。答题时要有全局意识。
  1. 需“瞻前”
  例1 (2016·全国II卷) She gave me a 53, (comforting) smile, nodded while listening patiently, and then printed out the 54 immediately.
  54. A. bill B. form C. ticket D. list
  解析 C。根据前文One morning, I had to 50, (book) an immediate flight home for a family emergency.可知,此处指的是“立刻打印出了票”,故选C项。
  2. 需“顾后”
  例2 (2016·全国卷Ⅰ) One more look and he noticed 45 shooting out from under the 46 (disabled) vehicle.
  45. A. flames B. smoke C. water D. steam
  解析 A。由后面Two good bursts from the extinguisher and the fire was put out.可知,从损毁的汽车下冒出的是flames“火焰”,而不是smoke“烟”。
  3. 需“瞻前顾后”
  例3 (2015·广东卷) On the whole, our population is getting older. The 11 in our population will have lasting effects on our social development and our way of life. Some people fear such changes will be for the worse, while some see 12 (chances), not disaster.
  11. A. changes B. recovery C. safety D. increases
  解析 A。联系上一句话中的getting older和下一句话中的such changes可以判断,人类寿命的延长和人口老龄化这些“变化(changes)”正对我们的社会发展和生活方式产生持久的影响,故选A项。
  4. 需通览全文
  有些题目仅依据上下文找不出答案,文中没有明确的信息,只有通览全文,把握主题,才能确定正确答案。
  例5 (2013·重庆卷) On the day Joe graduated, he presented the teacher with his most 47 (precious) possession—the picture of a bright yellow sun. On the picture Joe had written: This is the day I 48 my brightness.
  48. A. woke up to B. put up with
  C. got on with D. looked down upon
  解析 A。全文讲述了乔从开始上学一直到四年级都不太顺利。直到一个有暴风雨的下午,他在课堂上的表现非常好而受到数学老师的表扬。正是由于老师的鼓励,乔才认识到了自己闪光的一面,而这天下午也是他认识改变的开始。A项意为“认识到”,故选A项。
  [找标志,理逻辑]
  借助语篇标志,理清逻辑关系,有助于快速准确地找出正确答案。
  1. 转折关系
  例6 (2015·全国卷Ⅰ) We were 48 on cash ourselves, but ... well, sometimes 49 (giving) from our need instead of our abundance is 50, (just) what we need to do!
  48. A. easy B. low
  C. soft D. loose
  解析 B。由下文中but可知,前面应该说“我们本身现金不足”,故填low,意思是“很少,不足”。
  2. 因果关系
  例8 (2015·天津卷) Although her description sounded wonderful, the price was 18 our range, so we declined.
  18. A. below B. within C. beyond D. between
  解析 C。由后面的so we declined(因此我们拒绝了)可反推前面的原因是“价格超出了我们的能力范围”,因此选beyond,指“超出……的范围”。
  3. 并列关系
  例9 (2015·四川卷) That second year, the rabbits 15 me, and one would even sit up for slices!
  15. A. feared B. ignored
  C. discovered D. remembered
  解析 D。由后面的并列句and one would even sit up for slices可知,第二年有一只野兔甚至坐等吃胡萝卜片。由此可以推知野兔对作者的戒备心理消失了。4. 让步关系
  例10 (2015·江苏卷) I’m an ambitious 40, (writer), and when I started going through chemo(化疗), even though I’m a very 41 person, I lost my drive to write.
  41. A. positive B. agreeable
  C. humorous D. honest
  解析 A。该句中even though引导的是让步状语从句,然后根据后面的“我失去了写作的动力”可以推知前面应该是“我虽然是个积极乐观的人”,故填positive。
  [溯根源,查复现]
  在完形填空试题中,有些词语常常重复出现在语篇之中。词汇的复现使语篇构成一个前后呼应的整体。语篇复现的信息包括原词复现、同义或近义复现、反义复现、概括词复现和代词复现等。
  例12 (2013·重庆卷) No one 41 the concepts. Except for Joe. He understood them and answered all the questions correctly.
  41. A. challenged B. grasped
  C. doubted D. admitted
  解析 B。句意为“除了乔,没有一个人领会这些概念”。grasped与后文中的understood形成同义复现。
  [依情感,识褒贬]
  夹叙夹议的记叙文中,作者对人与事的好恶表现在字里行间。因此,把握作者的情感态度往往能快速锁定答案。
  例13 (2016·全国卷Ⅱ) Rushing out 55 I called out over my shoulder, “By the way, what’s your name?” “I’m Rani,” she said.
  55. A. hopefully B. disappointedly
  C. gratefully D. regretfully
  解析 C。由前文“What a wonderful lady!” I thought.以及Rani帮助作者很快打出了机票可知,此处表达的是正面的感情色彩排除B、D项。作者对Rani的帮助应该是感激的,所以选择C项。
  [遇搭配、直接选]
  完形填空有时考查同学们对习惯搭配和固定句型的掌握。
  例15 (2016·全国卷Ⅰ) The man who had his bright lights on 48 (came over) and told Larry he had 49 an emergency call.
  49. A. returned B. received C. made D. confirmed
  解析 C。根据上下文意可知,那位亮着车灯的车主走过来告诉Larry他已经打了急救电话。由固定搭配可知,“打电话”用make a call,故选C项。
  [涉语法、按规则]
  但是当涉及从句的引导词、情态动词和虚拟语气等语法项目时,要按照规则进行选择。
  例16 (2015·天津卷) But every day, we would sit by the lake, looking at the house and dreaming of 22 it would be like to live there.
  22. A. which B. why C. that D. what
  解析 D。四个选项都是连词,说明此处考查从句的引导词。分析句子结构可知,从句位于介词of后,应是宾语从句。从句中would be like后缺少宾语,根据名词性从句中缺什么成分补什么成分的原则,应填宾语的连接代词what。
  例17 (2014·福建卷) From my second grade on, there was one event I feared every year: the piano recital(独奏会). A recital 36 (meant) I had to practice a boring piece of music and perform before strangers. Each year I 37 ask my father if I could skip the recital “just this once”.
  37. A. would B. could C. might D. should
  解析 A。句意为“每年我都会问父亲我是否可以跳过独奏会——哪怕仅仅一次”。由此可知,这应该是过去的习惯性行为。would可以表示过去的一种习惯。

作者:不详 来源:网友发布
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