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阅读理解高分攻略

时间:2016-9-26 14:45:32

对于阅读理解,同学们经常诉苦说:文章我基本看懂了,可选择答案时总觉得似是而非,准确率老上不去,不知什么原因。这个问题有一定的代表性。下面是笔者个人的一些看法,希望能对同学们解题有所启迪。
  从历年的高考试题来看,所选的文章主要有五类:叙事性的文章,科普文章,社会新闻,人物传记和一些应用文,比如广告、通知、药品的说明书等。一般来说,阅读理解问题主要从以下方面来设计:
  1. 标题与主题思想题
  主要考查同学们是否有通过理解、分析全文,区别文章的主要信息和次要信息,从而归纳文章的中心思想或文章标题的能力。一般来说,归纳性的文章主题句在段末或篇末;演绎性的文章是主题句在段首或篇头;也有的主题句出现在段落或文章中间,其方式是:某问题(一个反面观点)——主题——阐述或论证。
  2. 推理判断题
  要求同学们根据作者在文章中所陈述的内容来确定其中的含义或得出某种结论,它的答案不能直接在文章中找出,只能借助现有的信息进行分析推断,找出文章能表达作者意图或句子或文章含义的关键词语,不可主观臆断,根据自己的体验来判断。
  3. 事实与细节题
  正确理解字面意义和结构是必需的。这类题答案一般都能从原文中找到,阅读时对主要事实或细节做上标记,陈述事实或细节时有一定的语言标记。如:表因果关系的词because, as, since, so, therefore, hence, as a result, in that; 表示转折关系的词but, yet, whereas, while, however, on the contrary, that is to say; 还有一些标点符号(破折号、冒号、分号等)。
  例1 The whole family uses the bathroom─most often without taking care. How safe is your bathroom? If any of the following is true of yours, do something about it as soon as possible before tragedy strikes.
  lVery hot water
  The water in your tap should not be hotter than 55-60 degrees Centigrade. If it is, it can easily burn those who inadvertently land under it in the shower, having forgotten to open the cold tap as well. In any case, it’s expensive to keep the boiler close to boiling point all the time.
  lGas leaks
  Gas leaks are dangerous─whether in bathrooms or kitchens. If you smell gas, switch off everything and get out of the house as soon as possible─even if you only have a towel around your body.
  lSlippery floor
  Imagine being in plaster of Paris for six weeks after breaking a leg slipping on a wet bathroom floor. Invest in a wooden or rubber bathroom mat or a non-slip bathroom floor. It is also an idea, especially if you have elderly relatives living with you, to have a non-slip rubber mat in the bath.
  lDirty towels
  Towels need to be washed regularly, as they are wonderful breeding grounds for bacteria. Infections can be passed on from one family member to another, if they use the same towel.
  lAny electrical connections
  There should be no electrical connections or extension wires in the bathroom. Any contact between a live electrical connection and water can result in death. This is the reason why electric shavers have special connections. Be careful of electrical extension cords linked to washing machines or dryers.
  1. Plaster of Paris may be .
  A. used to treat the broken bones
  B. a kind of medicine to treat diseases C. hidden in the broken legs or arms
  D. a place in Paris which is very dangerous
  2. If a person smells the thick gas around when taking a bath, he should .
  A. turn on the electric fan to blow the gas out
  B. find out the leaking point and get it fixed
  C. put on clothes and come out to call for help
  D. leave the bath full of gas very quickly
  3. From the passage, we can infer that .
  A. old people may easily slip on a wet floor
  B. rubber can clean wet bathrooms floor easily
  C. a towel may protect you from breathing in gas
  D. bacteria in towels come from the ground of bathroom
  4. In a bathroom, we’d better not .
  A. equip electric wires
  B. use electric equipment
  C. hang our washing towels
  D. keep the floor wet all over
  5. The best title of this passage may be .
  A. Never Use Extension Wires
  B. How to Take a Bath Correctly
  C. Don’t Make Your Bathroom a Death Trap
  D. How to Keep Away From Family Accidents
  解析 1. A。猜测词义题。根据第四段Imagine being in plaster of Paris for six weeks after breaking a leg slipping on a wet bathroom floor. 可知:在潮湿的浴室地板是滑一跤摔折了腿之后包在这个东西里面要六个星期,应该就是熟石膏,是用来治疗骨折用的。故选A。
  2. D。细节事实理解题。根据第三段中的... get out of the house as soon as possible ...可知答案。
  3. A。推理判断题。由第四段中的It is also an idea, especially if you have elderly relatives living with you, to have a non-slip rubber mat in the bath.可知上了年纪的人更容易滑倒。
  4. B。事实细节理解题。根据最后一段中的...Any contact between a live electrical connection and water can result in death. 可知答案。
  5. C。主旨大意题。本文一开始就告诫大家要注意防范事故悲剧的发生,接着向大家介绍浴室中要注意的几个事项,并提到可能会导致死亡,故选C项。“不要让你的浴室成为死亡陷阱”,以示警告。其他几项都是片面的。
  熟知文章结构,提防设题陷阱
  文章体裁不同,其结构特点就会各异。了解和熟悉不同类型文章的结构,可以帮助我们准确快速地理解文章,一般来说,叙事性的文章通常采用话题——举例——结论这一结构模式;说明文采用提出问题(或以一个事例引出问题)——(专家)发现直接原因——分析深层原因——得出结论或找到解决问题的模式;议论文则多采用主张——反主张的模式。在这一模式中,作者首先提出一种普遍认可的观点或某些人认可的主张或观点,然后进行澄清,说明自己的主张或观点,或者说提出反主张或真实情况。通过对文章结构特点分析,我们不难发现,阅读理解中无论任何体裁文章都遵循着这样一个共同的模式:提出话题(观点或事例)——用事例分析原因(批驳观点)——得出结论。对文章结构特点的把握有助于读者更加自觉地关注文章的开始和结尾。
  考题常采用以下干扰项设置方法来迷惑同学们。
  (1)将材料的部分内容当作全部内容,以偏概全。
  (2)扩大或缩小材料中某部分内容的含义,对所陈述的事实或结论要么全部肯定,要么全部否定或以最高级形式出现。
  (3)偏移材料中某部分内容的含义和文章的主旨,同学们很容易不自觉将自己的或传统观点当作作者的观点从而影响答题。
  (4)包含部分正确内容影响判断等,要把长句后半部分的内容的理解当作重点。
  例2 The researchers of Utah University studied 150 married couples and found that heart disease in women was linked to either hostile (敌意的) partner, but in men it was linked to either showing controlling behaviour, reported the online edition of BBC News.The researchers studied the couples without arterial (动脉的) disease, with at least one partner in their sixties, who were all paid to participate in the study.
  Each couple was asked to pick a topic, such as money, in-laws, children, vacations and household matters.
  They were then videoed while they discussed the topic, watched by psychology students. It was thought such discussions were less than what happened at home because the couples were being watched. The comments were classed as friendly or hostile. For example, comments such as “you can be so stupid sometimes” or “you’re too negative all the time” were coded as hostile. Participants were also given a scan to check for signs of disease. When the results were analysed, it was found that the wives who made the most hostile comments during the discussion had a greater degree of calcification (钙化) building up in the arteries that supply blood to the heart.
  Particularly high levels of calcification were found in women who behaved in a hostile and unfriendly way, the researchers found.
  However, husbands who displayed more controlling behaviour, or whose wives displayed such behaviour, were more likely than other men to have more serious arterial hardening.
  Some couples who were most hostile were referred to marriage guidance by the researchers.
  None of the people with high calcification were classed as a medical emergency, but some had scores which were high enough for them to be advised to talk to their doctor.
  1. How was the study carried out?
  A. By answering questions
  B. By watching life videos
  C. Through a one-day real life
  D. By recording the couple’s talk
  2. The researchers chose money, in-laws, children, vacations and household matters as the couples’ discussion topics probably because .
  A. they were very easy for couples to say something about
  B. they might easily cause disagreements in their marriage
  C. these were all the matters of daily life in their marriage
  D. these could cause arterial disease during their daily life
  3. The researchers suggested some couples see their doctors because they .
  A. had too high marks in the tests
  B. might have an arterial problem
  C. were too negative and stupid
  D. showed controlling behavior
  4. According to the research, the more hostile couples are, .
  A. the less soft their character will become
  B. the more damage their heart will receive
  C. the less clever they will both become
  D. the more negative they will become
  5. What is the purpose of this text?
  A. To stop bad fights between couples
  B. To explain the cause of heart disease
  C. To answer some questions from couples
  D. To educate people about good manners
  解析 1. D。细节事实理解题。由第四段中的They were then videoed while they discussed the topic, watched by psychology students. 可知,这个研究是将夫妻的谈话录制下来然后进行分析来进行的。
  2. B。推理判断题。这些都是婚姻生活中的最易引起分歧的话题,通过这些话题研究者可以更容易看出某些夫妻引发的敌意谈话,这样就可以更好地开展实验。
  3. B。逻辑推理题。由最后一段可推知:没人被划为医疗急救对象,但一些人得分过高,说明其可能患上动脉疾病,还是需要进行医疗、要去看医生的。而A项说的只是表面现象,不能直接解释这一原因。选B项。
  4. B。推理判断题。由文章可知这种病的成因:敌意的争吵→动脉高钙化→心脏损伤严重。故选B项。
  5. A。目的意图题。作者通过对这个研究的阐述,让我们认识到夫妻争吵能导致心脏疾病这一严重的后果,以告诫人们不要进行敌意的争吵。

作者:不详 来源:网友发布
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