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英语六级写作如何提高

时间:2016-9-6 22:50:22

一、模板无法准备,但是常见情境需要的“功能表达”可以背诵


  所谓“功能表达”,指的是具有诸如描述现象、分析原因、阐述影响、表达观点等特定功能的英语表达。这次六级考试的三个话题是让你想一想“当越来越多的机器人代替了人类劳动/越来越多的人参加在线教学/越来越多的人沉浸于虚拟世界时”会怎么样。这其实就是在让考生写一个事物带来的影响,也就是写“影响功能句”,这个方面需要详细展开重点写。当然也不是说通篇文章都只能写“这些事物带来的影响”,考生也可以写“原因功能句”:为什么机器人会越来越多地取代人类劳动呢?比如因为科学技术日新月异,或者出于安全和节约劳动力等因素考虑。考生还可以写“现象功能句”:机器人在各行各业以及人们的生活中越发常见,甚至可以举例说明它们的应用。最后考生还可以加上“观点功能句”:这样的现象有好也有不好,我们应该怎么做?这些都可以写,并且只有这样才能撑起较为完整的文章结构。拿这次六级真题中“当越来越多的机器人代替了人类劳动会怎样”的话题为例,这篇作文的写作结构可以作如下布局。
  第一段:表明在科学技术日新月异的背景下(原因功能),机器人的使用变得越来越常见(现象功能),同时引出这个现象会给人类社会带来深远的影响。
  (原因功能) In an age when science and technology changes with each passing day, (现象功能) the use of robots is becoming more and more popular and they are gradually taking the place of human beings in industry and our daily lives, (空泛影响) which is bound to exert profound influences on human society.
  第二段:具体论述机器人的使用会对人类社会的未来产生什么影响:一方面,这能把人类从枯燥或是危险的工作中解脱出来;另一方面,这会使未来很多工作机会消失不见(不需要人类去做了)。最后进一步提出,机器人的使用有好的一面,也会对人类社会产生潜在的威胁。
  (具体影响) On the one hand, human beings will be relieved of some tedious or dangerous work such as cleaning the floor or exploring the deep ocean. On the other hand, vast numbers of jobs will evaporate because they can be done by robots. Therefore, I believe that the use of robots that can make our lives much easier by reducing human labor, improving work efficiency and helping people avoid unnecessary danger will also pose a potential threat to human society. Many people will lose their jobs.
  第三段:发表个人观点,机器的使用有好的一面也有不好的一面,人类的体力劳动会被取代,所以应该用好自己的“脑力”。
  (观点功能) Accordingly, the use of robots, an inevitable trend in modern society, has its pros and cons. However, we create these machines and we are the masters of them. If we use robots to substitute our brawn (体力), we should learn to make better use of our brains.考生可以从讨论话题的实际需求出发,总结出以下这些常见的“功能表达”:
  ①陈述/展开现象;
  ②阐释原因;
  ③讨论影响;
  ④发表观点;
  ⑤实例辅助。
  考生在日常学习时一定要善于发现,勤于记录,积累这些功能表达。比如在范文中,“A that can do B will also do C”这个句型(见左栏范文中的斜体部分)是来自于阅读真题中的句型;而exert profound influences on、pose a potential threat to这类表示影响的表达都是写作范文中的常用表达。下面笔者给考生罗列上述常见功能表达的具体例句,这些例句的写法都比较经典,值得大家背诵模仿,其中加粗部分都是考生可以在不同的话题中模仿套用的常见词或结构。
  1陈述/展开现象
  ① In this day and age, people, especially young people, are becoming increasingly dependent on digital products, some of whom even forget how to write a simple word by themselves without the use of a computer or a mobile phone.
  今时今日,人们,尤其是年轻人,变得越来越依赖数码产品,他们当中有些人不用电脑或手机甚至连一个简单的单词都写不对。
  ② Recent years have witnessed a phenomenon that there is an increase in the number of parents who see their children as little princes or princesses and think their children are the best of the best.
  近年来目睹的一个现象就是,越来越多的家长把自己的孩子当成小王子或小公主,并且认为自己的孩子是最最优秀的。
  2 阐释原因
  ① Why? The reasons are simple and can be listed as follows. To begin with, the parents and teachers are mainly responsible for such a phenomenon, for the reason that most of them only attach importance to children’s tests scores while totally turning a blind eye to their personal interests and overall development. What’s more, fierce competition in the job market drives students to concentrate on getting high scores in school tests so that they may graduate with an Honor’s Degree, which may help them get a decent job after graduation.
  这个现象为什么发生呢?理由很简单,可罗列如下:首先,父母和老师要对这个现象负主要责任,因为他们中大多数人都只关注孩子的成绩,而对孩子的个人兴趣和全面发展熟视无睹。其次,就业市场的激烈竞争也在驱使学生专注于在学校考试中取得好成绩, 这样他们就能获得荣誉学位而毕业,而这能帮助他们在毕业之后找到一份体面的工作。
  ② It is understandable that in a society where fierce competition is going on in all areas of life, the great majority of people are living under a lot of pressure and are busy with their jobs, so it is not an easy task for them to exercise frequently.
  可以理解的是,在一个各行各业竞争都很激烈的社会里,大多数人的生活压力都很大,都在忙于工作,所以对他们来说经常锻炼也不容易。
  3 讨论影响
  ① Such a phenomenon is bound to adversely affect children’s emotional and intellectual growth as their parents’ words and deeds have far reaching influences on the formation of a child’s character. For instance, how can we expect a child to become a person of responsibility and moral integrity without his parents acting like good role models?
  这样一个现象注定会对孩子的情感和智力成长产生负面的影响,因为父母的言行对孩子性格的形成有着深远的影响。进一步说,父母不能做好榜样,又怎么能期待他们的孩子成长为一个负责任、诚实正直的人呢?
  ② Optimism not only helps us face hardships and adversities bravely and confidently, but also lays a solid foundation for bringing our ability and potential into full play.乐观不仅帮助我们勇敢自信地面对困难和逆境,也同样为充分发挥我们的潜力和才能打下坚实的基础。
  4 发表观点
  ① In my opinion, optimism is therefore a necessity of life and all of us should learn to keep our face turned towards the sunshine, be we in good times or bad times.
  在我个人看来,乐观是一种生活的必需品,而我们都需要学着面朝阳光,无论身处困境还是逆境。
  ② As a matter of fact, as long as people can enhance their awareness of doing physical exercise, time is not a problem. For instance, they can run to work or ride bicycles; they can climb stairs instead of taking elevators. Always remember: “Life lies in movement.”
  事实上,只要人们能够增强锻炼身体的意识,时间就不是问题。比如,人们可以跑步或骑自行车去上班,人们可以多走楼梯而不是乘电梯。记住:“生命在于运动。”
  5 实例辅助
  ① The same modern digital devices that have provided great convenience for our life have also influenced our life in negative ways. For instance, an increasing number of youngsters are getting addicted to online games, both adults’ and youngsters’ spare time is occupied by mindlessly using various Apps on their phones and people are increasingly reluctant to leave their phones or computers, which undoubtedly wastes much precious time that should be spent in doing more meaningful things.
  现代的数码设备给我们的社会带来巨大便利的同时也从负面影响着我们的生活。比如:越来越多的年轻人对网络游戏上瘾,无论成年人还是青少年的空闲时间都被漫无目的地使用手机中的App所占据了,人们也越来越离不开手机或电脑,这样做无疑会浪费掉很多原本可以做更有意义的事情的时间。
  ② There is no doubt that mutual learning is of great significance. The truth is that without mutual learning, Tu Youyou and her colleagues could never have succeeded in obtaining the pure substance qinghaosu since the whole process was so complicated that no one could have completed it alone.
  毋庸置疑,相互学习的意义重大。事实是,如果没有相互学习,屠呦呦和她的同事就不可能成功地提取纯净物“青蒿素”,因为整个过程是如此复杂,一个人不可能独立完成。
二、模板无法准备,但是话题可以预测


  作文题目的要求可以有各种变化,但是四、六级写作集中关注的几个大话题还是不会有多少变化。比如,今年笔者的“20篇押题作文”的前两篇就是关于科技与生活类的,这类话题在四、六级考试中出现的频率最高。同时还有关于家庭教育、学校教育、同学影响类的话题也是经常出现,这次四级考试就考了这方面的话题,而在此之前也考过“对我影响最大的一位同学”“获益最多的一次校园活动”“印象最深刻的一门课”等类似的话题。考生需要重点关注的最后一个话题就是“个人品质”,这类话题常常以引言作文的形式出现,比如“坚强的意志、好奇心、做好小事、做行动派……”建议考生在考前一个月多关注这些写作话题,去看一些靠谱的作文预测和范文,在看的过程中一定要做好摘录,摘录每一类话题中常见的高频用词和句型,然后自己去仿写几篇类似话题的作文,找老师进行批改,这样的提升效果是立竿见影的。
三、模板无法准备,但是高分句型可以练习


  六级作文对于考生语言质量的要求在于“准确性”和“多样性”。“准确性”需要考生重视英语基本的句法规则,在日常英语学习的过程中强化语法的基本概念。对于“多样性”,考生们需要多积累不同的用词和句式表达。在此笔者给考生列出六级作文中一定能用上的高分句型。
  1. 定语从句的灵活应用
  We live in an age when science and technology changes with each passing day.
  我们生活在一个科学技术日新月异的时代。
  We live in a society where temptations, such as alcohol, drugs and gambling, abound.
  我们的生活里充满了各种诱惑,如毒品、赌博、酒精等。

2. 状语从句的省略
  When (they are) confronted with difficulties and challenges, young people who lack self-confidence tend to give up easily.
  当面临困难和挑战的时候,缺乏自信的年轻人往往容易放弃。
  在此,需要说明的是,如果状语从句的主语和主句的主语一致且从句的谓语动词中含有be动词,此时从句往往可以省略“主语和be动词”。
  3. 强调句
  It was confidence that enabled Liu Xiang to overcome his serious injury and reach the peak of his career.
  正是自信使得刘翔能够克服严重的伤病,到达事业的顶峰。
  4. 倒装句
  Only by doing our best today can we be sure that we are really making an effort to improve ourselves and we are approaching our goals step by step.
  只有在当下尽力做到最好,我们才能确保我们真的在努力提高自身,且一步步地接近我们的目标。
  5. 同位语
  The use of robots, an inevitable trend in modern society, has its pros and cons.
  机器人的使用作为现代社会一个不可避免的趋势既有好的一面也有不好的一面。
  6. 虚拟语气
  It is critical that important decisions be made on the basis of comprehensive investigation and analysis.
  关键的是,重要的决定应该在综合的调查和分析的基础上做出。
  值得注意的是,这类虚拟表达的句式为:“It is important/urgent/necessary/imperative (或其他表示观点和态度的形容词) that sb. (should可省略) do sth.”

作者:不详 来源:网友发布
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