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动词时态和语态解析技巧

时间:2016-7-17 20:56:49

 [标志词汇要辨清]
  所谓标志词,即指在使用不同时态时常用的一些特定时间状语。识别了特定时态的特定时间状语,对于动词时态和语态的高考选择题的学习,将是事倍功半的。
  例1 (2015四川卷) More expressways in Sichuan soon to promote the local economy.
  A. are being built B. will be built
  C. have been built D. had been built
  解析 B。标志词为soon。根据时间状语soon可知,考査将来时。句意:四川将建设更多的高速公路以促进当地的经济发展。
  例2 (2015安徽卷) It is reported that a space station on the moon in years to come.
  A. will be building B. will be built
  C. has been building D. has been built
  解析 B。标志词为in years。根据in years to come可知用将来时,space station和build是动宾关系,空间站是被建造的,应该使用被动语态。句意:据报道,人们在未来的几年里将在月球上建一个空间站。
  例3 (2015天津卷) Jane can’t attend the meeting at 3 o’clock this afternoon because she a class at that time.
  A. will teach B. would teach
  C. has taught D. will be teaching
  解析 D。标志词为at that time,即at 3 o’clock this afternoon。表示在将来的某一时刻正在做某事,故用将来进行时。句意:简不能参加今天下午三点钟的会议,因为她那个时候在给学生上课。
  例4 (2015天津卷) Despite the previous rounds of talks, no agreement so far by the two sides.
  A. has been reached B. was reached
  C. will reach D. will have reached
  解析 A。标志词为so far。根据句中的时间状语so far“到目前为止”可知用现在完成时。主语agreement与reach为被动关系。句意:尽管之前经过多轮谈判,但到目前为止双方没有达成任何协议。
  例5 (2015北京卷) In the last few years, China great achievements in environmental protection.
  A. has made B. had made
  C. was making D is making
  解析 A。标志词为In the last few years。由时间状语in the last few years 可推知动作从过去一段时间持续到现在并对现在造成影响,用现在完成时。句意:在过去的这些年里,中国在环境保护方面取得了很大的成就。
  [主从时态须呼应]
  主从时态呼应即指,如果题干是主从复合句,可根据主从句时态呼应的原则选择相应的时态。
  例6 (2015北京卷) —Did you enjoy the party?
  —Yes, we by our hosts.
  A. were treated B. would be treated
  C. treated D. had treated
  解析 A。句意:—你喜欢这个聚会吗?—是的,我们得到了主人款待。根据上一句中的did可知用一般过去时;且we和treated是动宾关系,用被动语态。所以空中应用一般过去时的被动语态。
  例7 (2015湖南卷) I wasn’t able to hide my eagerness when I , “What do you wish me to do now?”
  A. ask B. have asked
  C. am asking D. asked
  解析 D。句意:当我问道,“你希望我现在做些什么?”的时候,我无法隐藏我的渴望。一般过去时表示过去某个时间里发生的动作,常和表示过去的时间状语连用。此题主句的时态为一般过去时,表示这个事情和动作发生在过去,故从句时态也要用一般过去时。
  例8 (2015安徽卷) Just as I got to the school gate, I realized I my bank in the cafe.
  A. have left B. had left
  C would leave D. was leaving
  解析 B。句意:当我刚刚走到学校大门口时,我就意识到把银行卡忘在餐馆了。realized后省略了that,这里是一个宾语从句,从句时态与主句保持一致,“落下”的动作发生在“意识到”之前,应该用过去完成时。
  例9 (2015湖南卷) As you go through this book, you that each of the millions of people who lived through World War II had a different experience.

作者:不详 来源:网友发布
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