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中考英语语法讲解:名词

时间:2008-11-26 9:00:31

名词当然是大家都很熟悉的了,我们吃的food,喝的drinks,穿的clothes 都是名词。It is easy, right? 但是你可能被名词的单复数变化、名词作定语以及名词所有格等问题搞得糊里糊涂的,到底该怎么用呢?OK,follow me。
  First, 名词复数的特殊变化。
  普通名词的复数我们知道是直接加-s或 -es,可是偏偏有一些名词不听话,变化不规则。这些小调皮是:
  a. class, box, watch, brush等词以 s, x, ch, sh, 结尾,复数要加-es;
  b. story, factory 等以"辅音字母+y"结尾的词复数要先将-y 变成-i再加-es;
  c. knife, wife, life等以-f 或-fe结尾的词一般先将-f或-fe变为-v, 再加-es;
  d. 以-o结尾的名词,一般来说,末尾是"元音字母+o" 的词加-s,我们学过的有radio,zoo。末尾是"辅音字母+o"的词,变复数加-es。如:tomato, hero, potato,当然其中的piano 和photo,又是一个例外,他们的结尾只能加-s。
  e. child(children), foot(feet), tooth(teeth), mouse(mice), man(men ), woman(women )等词的复数变化全不遵循规则。
注意:与 man 和 woman构成的合成词,其复数形式也是 -men 和-women。如:an Englishman,two Englishmen. 但German不是合成词,故复数形式为 Germans;
f. deer,sheep等词更是懒得可以,竟然单复数同形。好记好记。 people,police,cattle 等词,以单数形式出现,但实为复数,所以它们的谓语当然也是复数形式,这就是集体名词。the English,the French,the  Chinese等名词表示国民总称时,也作复数用。
  注意:maths,politics,physics等学科名词,虽然以-s结尾,仍为不可数名词。还有theUnited States(美国),the United Nations(联合国)等应视为单数。
  别奇怪,名词有时也可以作定语的。它作定语时一般用单数,但也有以下例外。
  a. man, woman等作定语时,它的单复数以其所修饰的名词的单复数而定。如:men workers, women teachers。
  b. 数词+名词作定语时,这个名词一般保留单数形式,中间加连字符。如:a ten-mile walk十里路,two-hundred trees 两百棵树。
  哇!这些问题好复杂,我好想轻松一下。那我们就轻轻松松地面对名词所有格问题。
  这里面内容可谓少之又少,可也不能小视呦。
名词所有格:
表示“……的”通常是在名词的后面加-s,如:Children's day,father's shoes。但以-s结尾的名词因为已经有s了,只需加 ' 就OK了。如果两个名词并列,并且分别有's,.则表示“分别有”。.如:John's and Mary's room(约翰和玛丽各有一间,共两间);两个名词并列,只有一个's,则表示"共有"。如:John and Mary's room(约翰和玛丽共有一间)。
还有些无生命名词的所属要用介词of来帮助一下,如:a map of China,the end of this term。
  好,名词部分我们已经学完,It's a piece of cake? 接下来到了我们趁热打铁的时间了,
  Are you ready?

练习:
1. All the _____teachers and______students are having a meeting there.
  A. women …girls
  B. women… girl
  C. woman…girls
  D. woman…girl
 2. Mr Black is a friend of _________.
  A. Jack's aunt's
  B. Jack's aunt
  C. Jack aunt's
  D. aunt's of Jack
 3. This toy was made by a ____ boy.
  A. ten-year-old
  B. ten-years-old
  C. ten-year-older
  D.ten-years-older
 4. The farmer raised ten _________.
  A. sheeps
  B. deers
  C. horse
  D. cows
 5. She looked at us sadly with her eyes as large as_________.
  A. her grandmother
  B. her grandmother's
  C. her grandmothers'
  D. that of her grandmother
 6. We have moved into a ________.
  A. two- storey house
  B. house of two storey
  C. two-storeys house
  D. two storeys house
 7. The ______ was too much for the child to carry.
  A. box's steel
  B. box of a steel
  C. steel box
  D. box of the steel
 8. We'll give our English teacher a card for _________.
  A. the Teacher's Day
  B. Teacher's Day
  C. a Teacher's Day
  D. Teachers' Day
 9. Li Ping met an old friend of _______on a train yesterday.
  A. he
  B. him
  C. his
  D. her
 10. _________are big and bright.
  A. The classroom window
  B. The window of the classroom
  C. The windows of the classroom
  D. The classroom's windows
                   
实战:
1. Don't worry. Your son will come back in ______hour.
  A. a
  B. an
  C. the
  D. /
 2. This nice blouse isn't mine. It's ______.
  A. you
  B. your
  C. Lucy
  D. yours
 3. What's " potato" in Chinese? -It's _____ .
  A. 香蕉
  B. 大白菜
  C. 西红柿
  D. 土豆
 4. The ninth month of a year is _______.
  A. December
  B. November
  C. September
  D. October
 5. A: Must I leave now?
  B: No, you _______.
  A. needn't
  B. mustnt
  C. don't
  D. won't
 6. We have a history lesson ______Wednesday afternoon.
  A. on
  B. of
  C. at
  D. to
 7. Suan has made quite ______friends since she came to China.
  A. few
  B. a few
  C. little
  D. a little
 8. A: Have you ever ______to the West Lake?
  B: Yes, I ______there last winter.
  A. gone, went
  B. been, went
  C. gone , have been
  D. been, have
 9. Do you ________English?
  A. tell
  B. say
  C. talk
  D. speak
 10. A: May I _______your ruler?
   B: OK, I'm glad to _______it to you.
  A. lend, borrow
  B. lend, lend
  C. borrow , lend
  D. borrow, borrow
 11. We'll go to the museum if it _______tomorrow.
  A. can't rain
  B. won't rain
  C. don't rain
  D. doesn't rian
 12. Do you know ________?
  A. where does he study
  B. he studies where
  C. where he studies
  D. he where studies
 13. A: _______do you go to see your grandparents?
   B: Once a month
  A. How often
  B. How long
  C. how much
  D. how many
 14. A: Would you like another cup of orange?
   B: ______I'm full.
  A. No, thanks
  B. Yes, please.
  C. Here it is.
  D. I don't like.
 15. You must be tired. Why not ________a rest?
  A. to stop to have
  B. stop having
  C. stop to have
  D. to stop having

作者:南京天才家教 来源:南京天才家教
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